Category: philosophy of technology

A (business) proposition concerning Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics


I understand the later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of logic, at least insofar as that term refers to his commentary on “the meaning of a proposition” and “logic” as a sort of grammar.  I also understand his critiques of Fregean semantics, or am at least familiar enough with them that I could write a bit on it.

One thing that continues to evade my cognitive grasp, however, is the later Wittgenstein’s remarks on mathematics–for instance, his comments on probability statements, and on Ramsey’s equations.

I love logic, but I’m definitely not a math whiz (I think this serves as a counter-example to Russell’s idea that logic is foundational with respect to math; that is, mathematical statements could, in principle, be reduced into statements of logic), nor am I exactly familiar with Wittgenstein’s often bizarre notation (his notation for logical symbols used to throw me off).


With that in mind, is anyone familiar with the sections of Philosophical Grammar where Wittgenstein devotes his philosophical eye to various problems in mathematics and the philosophy of mathematics?  If so, please comment here, and summarize what you know and what you might consider writing about if asked by yours truly. 

I’d love to work out a mutually beneficial arrangement, whereby I can interview anyone who is interested and/or knows this kind of stuff, and then you can interview me or whatever on your blog/website (note: your website or blog need not be particularly concerned with Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language, I’m open to several topics of discussion)


Remarks on virtual economies

Recently, I have devoted a lot of attention to the notion of virtual game economies. I am fascinated by some of the recent transactions that have solely involved virtual property. (e.g. the virtual mall or whatever that was sold in the virtual world known as Second Life for millions of dollars). Most intriguing to me is the debate going on between lawmakers on whether or not these economies are taxable in the same way typical (i.e. involving the physical or real transaction of goods or services) transactions are taxed.

On the one hand, taxing virtual game economies can be seen as perverse: these markets don’t ‘exist’ in the way we tend to think of live, active markets. On the other hand, these economies certainly are not insignificant, and notions such as scarcity and supply and demand play a real role in their development.

But ignoring for the moment the question of whether these economies should be taxed, there still exists the question of what sort of tax(es) could be levied. I presume that if these economies are taxed, the form the tax would take would be something akin to a flat state sales tax. On average, a user of the game world Second Life has made something like $38.00 this year. Others make several thousand a month. Does it make sense to implement the same tax rate on significant transactions (i.e. to the tune of >$1 million) versus insignificant transactions (i.e. to the tune of $1.00-$200.00)?

Of further interest in this development is the variable responses of the developers of these games/worlds. The company responsible for World of Warcraft, Blizzard Inc, has taken measures that oppose the possibility of exploiting the game’s economy for real financial transactions. Of course, there are only so many measures that can be taken, and gold farming, for instance, is extremely difficult to oppose (after all, Blizzard does not have access to paypal transactions). Other MMO developers explicitly welcome financial transactions involving their virtual property, and some have gone so far as to create forums where players can sell gold or other items they have come across via PayPal or E-Gold.

Second Life goes a step beyond that by issuing an explicit exchange rate for the in-game currency (right now its something like 270 lindens=1 US dollar). To call Second Life a game would be slightly reductive: the developers leave a significant portion of the content of the world in the creative hands of subscribers. The users are limited by imagination and knowledge of the various functions of the world itself, but it is the users which create most of the actual content. Because of this, there is little in the way of universal rules. The rules are what the users provide in various locations within the world of Second Life. In terms of economy, the notion of scarcity here takes a more fluid role, one that cannot be elucidated easily. Hell, at least with World of Warcraft the presence of raw materials is somewhat determined by the developers.

These are interesting developments, and I think they only complicate the question of “in what sense are these virtual economies real economies?” If we say that they are real, in what sense do we mean that, and whom is responsible for governing their development–national governments, the developers, or the users themselves?